Building Codes Pdf, Military Fails 2019, Bird Is The Word Family Guy 10 Hours, Lanco Paints Locations, Wizard101 Ghost Fire, King Edward Vi Five Ways School Jobs, How To Put Stickers On Stampin' Up Stamps, Weather Badrinath, Uttarakhand, Jawaharlal Institute Of Postgraduate Medical Education And Research, Mini Bernedoodle Full Grown, Ucsd Grad School Tuition, Google Map Lahore Johar Town, Vintage John Deere License Plate, Status Of Bandra-versova Sea Link, " /> Building Codes Pdf, Military Fails 2019, Bird Is The Word Family Guy 10 Hours, Lanco Paints Locations, Wizard101 Ghost Fire, King Edward Vi Five Ways School Jobs, How To Put Stickers On Stampin' Up Stamps, Weather Badrinath, Uttarakhand, Jawaharlal Institute Of Postgraduate Medical Education And Research, Mini Bernedoodle Full Grown, Ucsd Grad School Tuition, Google Map Lahore Johar Town, Vintage John Deere License Plate, Status Of Bandra-versova Sea Link, " />

[11][12], Chinese small leaf type tea was introduced into India in 1836 by the British and some Indian Assam type tea (e.g. C. sinensis is mainly cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates, in areas with at least 127 cm (50 in) of rainfall a year. Hundreds,[14] if not thousands of cultivars of C. sinensis are known. Camellia sinensis var. By 1700 Camellia had over 900 Japanese names, and … Left in its natural state, Camellia sinensis grows into a tree that reaches about six feet tall for small leaf varieties, to over 50 feet tall for the ancient broad leaf trees growing in Yunnan. Camellia sinensis. Assam tea is manufactured specifically from the plant Camellia sinensis var. The black tea and green tea made from the leaves have been consumed by humans for thousands of years as a stimulant and is today the second most widely consumed beverage after water. The assamica or “broad leaf” variety most closely resembles the original tea plant, where as the sinensis or “small leaf” variety evolved as the tea plant was carried from its subtropical homeland to more temperate climates. Younger leaves feature high concentrations of TCS1 transcripts, allowing more caffeine to be synthesized during this time. As with apple trees and grapevines, cultivars with individual appearance and taste characteristics have arisen as a result … It is probably native to China. Mast.) Dephosphorylation of xanthosine-5'-monophosphate into xanthosine is the committed step for the xanthosines entering the beginning of the most common pathway. For this reason, the spring harvest or “first flush” is typically the most prized of the year. Many types of Southern Yunnan Assam tea have been hybridized with the closely related species Camellia taliensis. Camellia sinensis (leaf) UPLC. assamica). Kitam. In the springtime, these nutrients are drawn up and become concentrated in the new growth. Opinion of the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products on a community herbal monograph on Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, non fermentatum folium (PDF/48.1 KB) Unlike Southern Yunnan Assam tea, Western Yunnan Assam tea shares many genetic similarities with Indian Assam type tea (also C. s. var. It has a strong taproot. The leaves are 4–15 cm (1.6–5.9 in) long and 2–5 cm (0.79–1.97 in) broad. Here, camellia flowers grow wild and during the early spring entire fields will be covered in colorful camellias. Hybrids of … From its distant Chinese origins the taste for tea has crossed all borders. The main attribute by which a tea is put into one of the six categories is its degree of polyphenolic oxidation. The art of making tea involves skillfully facilitating tea leaf oxidation, and dehydration, through a series of intricate steps to achieve a desired flavor and aroma. assamica in Yunnan, China (Li et al., 2015). Camellia sinensis is a species of evergreen shrubs or small trees in the flowering plant family Theaceae whose leaves and leaf buds are used to produce tea. Origins Camellia sinensis (or tea plant) is used to make most traditional caffeinated teas, including black tea, white tea, oolong tea, and green tea. Some Indian Assam tea appears to have hybridized with the species Camellia pubicosta. In Tanzania, tea plants have been noted to escape from cultivation in areas of Amani, Mt Kilimanjaro and are considered to be invasive in parts of the Usambaras (Cicuzza and Kokotos 2010). Cultivated tea gardens are managed by pruning tea trees into bushy rows, making it easier to pick young leaves that sprout up on top of the “plucking table.” To this day, most tea is picked by hand. This heat denatures the enzymes that cause tea leaves to change in color…, FREE DOMESTIC SHIPPING ON ORDERS OVER $39, Menghai Broad Leaf cultivar taken by Rishi in Yunnan, China, Privacy Information for California Residents. It is appreciated for its stimulant properties and health benefits, and as the centre of social rituals such as the Japanese tea ceremony and British teatime. Camellia sinensis is an evergreen Shrub growing to 4 m (13ft) by 2.5 m (8ft) at a slow rate. [18] It contains about three billion base pairs, which was larger than most plants previously sequenced.[19]. assamica . The actual tea plant is an evergreen tree native to the part of Southeast Asia where China’s Yunnan Province meets India’s Nagaland region and the northern areas of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam. sinensis (L.) Kuntze : Camellia sinensis var. In the northern hemisphere, the harvest season begins in late February or March and runs through September or October. Analysis of the pathway was carried out by harvesting young leaves and using reverse transcription PCR to analyze the genes encoding the major enzymes involved in synthesizing caffeine. lasiocaly) was originally considered a type of assam tea. This article treats the cultivation of the tea plant. Hand picking tea leaves Chiangdao, Thailand. In 2017, Chinese scientists sequenced the genome of C. s. var. waldenae was considered a different species, C. waldenae by SY Hu,[22] but it was later identified as a variety of C. [11][12], Assuming a generation of 12 years, Chinese small leaf tea is estimated to have diverged from Assam tea around 22,000 years ago, while Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea diverged 2,800 years ago. [17] The young, light-green leaves are preferably harvested for tea production; they have short, white hairs on the underside. EL CLUB DEL TÉ La cultura del té, de la tierra al espíritu. In Kenya, it is cultivated in Limuru, Kericho, Mt Kenya among others. pubilimba Hung T. Chang and C. s. var. assamica are two major varieties grown today. [11][12], Given their genetic differences forming distinct clades, Chinese Assam type tea (C. s. var. Species of flowering plant in the family Theaceae, "Tea plant" redirects here. Fresh leaves contain about 4% caffeine, as well as related compounds including theobromine. Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and prefers well-drained soil. However, since no wild populations of this tea are known, the precise location of its origin is speculative. sinensis and Camellia sinensis var. Camellia sinensis. [23] This variety is commonly called Waldenae Camellia. It is believed that these foundational uses of tea date back some four or five thousand years, making tea about as ancient as the primitive styles of wine and beer. The Tea Plant: Camellia Sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze Green, white, yellow, Oolong, Pu-erh and black tea all originate from the same plant species: Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze.This species in turn belongs to the family Theaceae, in the order of Ericales, within the Thea subsection of the genus Camellia. Camellia sinensis plants originated in China's southwest region. Two principal varieties are used, the small-leaved Chinese variety plant (C. s. sinensis) and the large-leaved Assamese plant (C. s. assamica), used mainly for black tea. Throughout the growing season, tea plants sprout tender new leaf buds in a series of growth surges called flushes. Tea plants will grow into a tree if left undisturbed, but cultivated plants are pruned to waist height for ease of plucking. (Paul Ssegawa, *** [26] Caffeine is a purine alkaloid and its biosynthesis occurs in young tea leaves and is regulated by several enzymes. assamica (J.W. Although health benefits have been assumed throughout the history of using tea as a common beverage, no high-quality evidence shows that tea confers significant benefits. This divergence tea would correspond to the last glacial maximum. The plant is not self-fertile. Uses of Camellia Sinensis. Some dried camellia leaves fell in his cup and began to steep. Initial effort of planting Chinese varieties in Assam soil did not succeed. – Origins and Categorization of Camellia Sinensis All true tea is made with leaves harvested from a single plant species called Camellia sinensis. Tea is a journey that offers a lifetime of learning — join us, starting your journey with Rishi Tea & Botanicals. It is also distributed in the Guangxi province.[22]. For the unrelated evergreen flowering plant, see. This hand picking is repeated every one to two weeks. The flowers grew wild in Japan and were eventually cultivated. Camellia Sinensis | Tea, History, Terroirs, Varieties. 1  Camellia taliensis is a close wild relative of domesticated tea that is proposed to have been involved in the domestication and breeding of C. sinensis var. assamica. What is Tea? It is seen on Sunset Peak and Tai Mo Shan in Hong Kong. Fragrant white flowers (to 1 1/2" across) with yellow stamens bloom in fall to early winter. Three main kinds of tea are produced in India: Nepali tea is also considered to be similar to the tea produced in Darjeeling, mostly because the eastern part of Nepal, where a large amount of tea is produced, has similar topography to that of Darjeeling. Robert Sweet shifted all formerly Thea species to the genus Camellia in 1818. C. sinensis var. [8] The name sinensis means "from China" in Latin. From time immemorial, praised by poets adored by Emperors, tea is not only the most consumed beverage on the planet but also an essential part of the diet of millions around the world. Camellia sinensis, also known as the tea camellia, is native to China and prized by home gardeners for its glossy evergreen leaves and fragrant flowers. Colloquially, the word “tea” is often used to refer to many herbs and botanicals that are brewed with hot water, although these plants are not technically tea. As you begin to find your favorite types of tea, consider the type of tea and its level of oxidation. Colloquially, the word “tea” is often used to refer to many herbs and botanicals that are brewed with hot water, although these plants are not technically tea. Most tea regions experience three or four distinct flushes within each crop year. Green teas are crafted with the application of heat in a step called firing. The Camellia sinensis may be 12 m tall, but is cultivated low © Giuseppe Mazza The plant is native to Cambodia, China (Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan), India (Assam), Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam, where it grows in the broadleaf forests up to 2.000 m of altitude in tropical and subtropical humid climate zones. The leaves are glossy green with serrated edges and are similar in both shape and size to a bay leaf. Within each of the six categories, hundreds of traditional styles of tea are differentiated by factors including growing region, cultivar, harvest time, and crafting technique. Four varieties of C. sinensis are recognized. [10], Chinese (small leaf) type tea may have originated in southern China possibly with hybridization of unknown wild tea relatives. It typically grows to 10-15' tall, but can easily be trimmed shorter (e.g., to 4-6' tall) or shaped as a hedge. Camellia sinensis is used to make camellia tea. Filter about 10 ml of extract using a 0.20 um PTFE membrane filter. All true tea is made with leaves harvested from a single plant species called Camellia sinensis. assamica, and a third lesser known variety called cambodiensis. Under each of these varieties fall hundreds of sub-varieties known as cultivars (cultivated variety). From Coast to Coast The articles from the 1946 Yearbook give insight into what people had to say about their camellias way back then!!!! Moving towards ‘Camellia Sinensis’ In 1818, English botanist Robert Sweet “grouped the various species of Thea under the heading of the genus Camellia.” Six years later, in 1824, Swiss Botanist Augustin Pyrame de Candolle “grouped the genus Thea within the order Camelliae.” It is an evergreen shrub or small tree that is usually trimmed to below 2 m (6.6 ft) when cultivated for its leaves. Older leaves are deeper green. Widely esteemed for its delicate appearance, elegant sweetness and noble character, Silver Needle tea is comprised of pure, individually plucked tea buds harvested only in the early springtime. It has a strong taproot. Anthropological research indicates that tea was originally wild-harvested and consumed as a bitter vegetable that was cooked into nourishing soups and as a folk medicine prepared as a vitality tonic. assamica (JW Masters) Kitamura are most commonly used for tea, and C. s. var. Some Japanese cultivars include: C. sinensis is native to East Asia, the Indian Subcontinent, and Southeast Asia, but it is today cultivated across the world in tropical and subtropical regions. assamica) may have two different parentages – one being found in southern Yunnan (Xishuangbanna, Pu'er City) and the other in western Yunnan (Lincang, Baoshan). The generic name Camellia is taken from the Latinized name of Rev. A sequence of reactions turns xanthosine into 7-methylxanthosine, then 7-methylxanthine, then theobromine, and finally into caffeine. We’ve included several recommendations for you to explore below. Matcha is a traditional Japanese green tea powder produced by stone-milling a shade-grown green tea called tencha into a fine powder…, Green Tea is the least oxidized of the six tea types. Leathery, serrate, elliptic, glossy dark green leaves (to 5" long) are evergreen. It is better to grow in acid soil with annual average temperature between 15 ° C and 25 ° C. Camellia shrubs can generally stand up to -10 ° C temperature and even -15 ° … Different leaf ages produce differing tea qualities, since their chemical compositions are different. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Tea is a shrub grown to produce a beverage made from its leaves. assamica is from the Assam region of northern India with larger leaves hardy to zone 7 and south. The astounding variety of teas available today, and the vast geography where tea is grown, is all the more amazing given tea’s early roots. The Camellia's origin. There are several varieties of the plant Camellia sinensis. In Uganda, tea is grown in Toro, Mubende and Mengo areas. Common names include "tea plant", "tea shrub", and "tea tree" (not to be confused with Melaleuca alternifolia, the source of tea tree oil, or Leptospermum scoparium, the New Zealand tea tree). Camellia sinensis, the tea camellia, flowering at the end of March With just one sizeable bush of the tea camellia, C. sinensis , the harvest was never going to be huge but after fiddly-faddling with a few minor efforts in recent years, I was determined to get as much as I could this year. All other drinks made with flowers, herbs, fruits etc, must be called differently. C. sinensis var. According to history, Camellia sinensis was first used as a medicine in the Chinese province of Yunnan. Tea, beverage produced by steeping in freshly boiled water the young leaves and leaf buds of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis. The camellia is native to China where it has a rich national history, particularly in the southwest region. The best known and most often found in tea cultivation is Camellia sinensis var. Two principal varieties are used, the small-leaved China plant (C. sinensis sinensis) and the large-leaved Assam plant (C. sinensis assamica). The tea popularity continued to grow rapidly in China from 4th to 6th century. [27][28] The biosynthetic pathway in C. sinensis differs from other caffeine-producing plants such as coffee or guayusa. Tea, its origins and its history. Three different styles of green tea (steamed, oven-baked and roasted) are combined to make a deliciously smooth everyday green tea inspired by the classic Chinese green tea known as Wulu. Camellia History. The first evidences of use and cultivation of camellia in China are about 5 000 years old. However, as the Indian Assam tea shares no haplotypes with Western Yunnan Assam tea, Indian Assam tea is likely to have originated from an independent domestication. Tea are made by steeping the leaves of the Camellia Sinensis plant, an evergreen plant which grows in tropical and subtropical climates. Caffeine, a molecule produced in C. sinensis, functions as a secondary metabolite and acts as a natural pesticide: it can paralyze and kill predator insects feeding on the plant. When you use the correct water temperature it can open up a whole world of flavor that you never knew existed within tea. Kukicha (twig tea) is also harvested from C. sinensis, but uses twigs and stems rather than leaves. Usually, the tip (bud) and the first two to three leaves are harvested for processing. It is in leaf all year, in flower from March to May. C. sinensis. For information on the processing of tea and the history of its use, see the article tea. However, the clonal one is commercially cultivated from the equator to as far north as Cornwall and Scotland on the UK mainland. [9], Tea plants are native to East Asia, and probably originated in the borderlands of north Burma and southwestern China. It was mainly tea, which is a species of camellia (thea sinensis or camellia sinensis). Georg Kamel,[4] SJ (1661–1706), a Moravian-born Jesuit lay brother, pharmacist, and missionary to the Philippines. Today, Camellia sinensis tea is no longer solely used for its medicinal effects but became recognized all over the world for pleasure and refreshments. We select only bergamot oil made during the first pressing of the year, around November-December, which has the most fragrant perfume and floral aromatic complexity. It is humbling to reflect on that and realize that the more we learn about tea, the more we find there is yet to learn. sinensis and C. s. var. He … The first tea plant variety to be discovered, recorded, and used to produce tea dates back 3,000 years ago, it yields some of the most popular teas. sinensis and C. s. var. Camellia thea Link : Camellia theifera Griff. The word tea implies that it comes from the plant Camellia sinensis. Green tea and black tea come from the same plant although until 1700 it was still thought that there were two … Camellia sinensisis grown as a cash crop in plantations at high altitudes in East Africa. Georg Kamel, SJ (1661–1706), a Moravian-born Jesuit lay brother, pharmacist, and missionary to the Philippines. Our Silver Needle is unique in that it is sourced from Menghai and Mengku broad leaf varietal ancient tea tree groves in the remote, mountainous Yunnan Province of China. The tea plant. Thus, Western Yunnan Assam tea and Indian Assam tea both may have originated from the same parent plant in the area where southwestern China, Indo-Burma, and Tibet meet. For tea, it is the biochemical process that changes freshly picked leaves from green to yellow, amber to red, and finally brown. sinensis is the Chinese variety that has small leaves and is more tolerant of cold weather hardy into USDA Zone 6. Camellia Sinensis has been systematically bred and selective varieties cultivated since the spread of tea. Camellias are also a highly respected flower in Japan, and is often referred to as the Japanese rose. Wambulwa, MC, MK Meegahakumbura, R Chalo, List of Lepidoptera that feed on Camellia, International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, ITIS Standard Report Page Camellia Sinensis, International Association for Plant Taxonomy, "Indications for three independent domestication events for the tea plant (, "Domestication origin and breeding history of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) in China and India based on nuclear microsatellites and cpDNA sequence data", "Identification of Japanese tea (Camellia sinensis) cultivars using SSR marker", "Varietal differences in the adaptability of tea [Camellia sinensis] cultivars to light nitrogen application", "The Tea Tree Genome Provides Insights into Tea Flavor and Independent Evolution of Caffeine Biosynthesis", "Secrets of tea plant revealed by science", "Expression of caffeine biosynthesis genes in tea (Camellia sinensis)", "Purification and characterization of caffeine synthase from tea leaves",, Plants used in traditional Chinese medicine, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2014, Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Chinese Western Yunnan Assam (large leaf) tea [, Chinese Southern Yunnan Assam (large leaf) tea [, Antibacterial Activity of Green Tea Extracts against, This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 02:12. Assam tea is indigenous to Assam. assamica (Masters). A further look at the genetic diversity among wild trees point to Yunnan as the origin of the Camellia sinensis var. One fellow was even growing camellias outside on … sinensis: this province shows the greatest genetic diversity among the wild trees—the longer a species is present in an area the greater the chance to accumulate mutations, and the greater the differences among individuals of the present day populations. [24][25] In clinical research over the early 21st century, tea has been studied extensively for its potential to lower the risk of human diseases, but none of this research is conclusive as of 2017.[24]. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees. It is hardy to zone (UK) 8. The modern tea world recognizes six categories of tea: green, yellow, white, oolong, black, and dark (Pu’er). A special reserve for Earl Grey lovers, we infuse our top grades of Yunnan Dianhong black tea with the essential oil pressed from real bergamot citrus fruits grown in Calabria, Italy to yield our Earl Grey Supreme blend. [20][21] Many high quality teas are grown at high elevations, up to 1,500 m (4,900 ft), as the plants grow more slowly and acquire more flavour. Camellia sinensis (green tea) contains caffeine and antioxidant polyphenols. The tea plant is used to make many different types of tea, including black tea, white tea, oolong tea and green tea, which are all processed differently.Black tea, for example, is fermented. Thea bohea L. Thea sinensis L. Thea viridis L. Camellia sinensis var. The gene TCS1 encodes caffeine synthase. The global tea market is worth about £40 billion.. China is the largest producer of tea.In 2018 it produced 2.5 million metric tons, 42.6% of the world’s tea. Tea plants prefer a rich and moist growing location in full to part sun, and can be grown in hardiness zones 7 – 9. Savory notes from steamed tea leaves are expertly balanced with the toasted chestnut flavor and flowery aromas of baked and roasted lots. The plant, a species of evergeen (Camellia sinensis), is valued for its young leaves and leaf buds, from which the tea beverage is produced. Camellia sinensis (L) Kuntze, a plant native to China and Southeast Asia is globally a very important plant for humans. This plant originated near the southwest region of China as an evergreen forest shrub. Camellia flowers are very popular in the Far East, having at one time been called by botanist Engelbert Kaempher the “Japan Rose”. Extraction Solvent: Acetone & water (80:20) Diluent: 0.5% formic acid in water Test Sample Preparation: Transfer 1 g of ground plant material into a screw cap bottle, add 50 ml of Extraction Solvent, tightly cap, and shake for 4 h in a mechanical shaker at room temperature. This natural oxidation is an enzymatic reaction that is similar to the browning of a sliced apple or freshly chopped basil leaves. dehungensis (Hung T. Chang & BH Chen) TL Ming are sometimes used locally. The generic name Camellia is taken from the Latinized name of Rev. Common Name(s): tea [English] Taxonomic Status: Current Standing: accepted Data Quality Indicators: Record Credibility Rating: C. s. var. We offer a vast selection of world-class quality white tea, green tea, black tea, wulong (oolong), Pu er and matcha, selected at source in the gardens of … New cultivars are developed when tea farmers selectively breed tea plants that demonstrate preferred qualities such as a stellar aromatic complexity or the tenacity to thrive in periods of frost or drought. The first is very suitable for green and oolong teas, while the second is usually used for black and fermented teas. The Sinensis variety is a native Chinese plant, while Assamica has been found in the Indian province of Assam, after which it was named. It is an evergreen shrub or small tree that is usually trimmed to below 2 m (6.6 ft) when cultivated for its leaves. [2] Of these, C. sinensis var. Assam tea is mostly grown at or near sea level and is known for its body, briskness, malty flavour, and strong, bright colour. [2] The Cambod type tea (C. assamica subsp. The flowers are yellow-white, 2.5–4 cm (0.98–1.57 in) in diameter, with seven or eight petals. Camellia sinensis is used to make products for cooking, cosmetics, landscape-garden use to making tea, tea oil, etc. The seeds of C. sinensis and C. oleifera can be pressed to yield tea oil, a sweetish seasoning and cooking oil that should not be confused with tea tree oil, an essential oil that is used for medical and cosmetic purposes, and originates from the leaves of a different plant. C. sinensis is native to East Asia, the Indian Subcontinent, and Southeast Asia, but it is today cultivated across the world in tropical and subtropical regions. During the winter months, the plants go dormant and their energy and nutrients are stored within the roots. From this one species stems two main varieties known as Camellia sinensis var. [3] White tea, yellow tea, green tea, oolong, dark tea (which includes pu-erh tea) and black tea are all harvested from one or the other, but are processed differently to attain varying levels of oxidation. However, later genetic work showed that it is a hybrid between Chinese small leaf tea and assam type tea. According to legend, the tea was discovered when an early Chinese emperor ordered all the water in the land to be boiled before drinking to prevent disease. It prefers warm, wet and shaded growing environment. The Chinese plant is a small-leafed bush with multiple stems that reaches a height of some 3 m. It is native to southeast China. Carl Linnaeus chose his name in 1753 for the genus to honor Kamel's contributions to botany[5] (although Kamel did not discover or name this plant, or any Camellia,[6] and Linnaeus did not consider this plant a Camellia but a Thea).[7]. Tea leaves are eaten by some herbivores, such as the caterpillars of the willow beauty (Peribatodes rhomboidaria), a geometer moth. Darjeeling tea) appear to be genetic hybrids of Chinese small leaf type tea, native Indian Assam, and possibly also closely related wild tea species.[13]. sinensis.

Building Codes Pdf, Military Fails 2019, Bird Is The Word Family Guy 10 Hours, Lanco Paints Locations, Wizard101 Ghost Fire, King Edward Vi Five Ways School Jobs, How To Put Stickers On Stampin' Up Stamps, Weather Badrinath, Uttarakhand, Jawaharlal Institute Of Postgraduate Medical Education And Research, Mini Bernedoodle Full Grown, Ucsd Grad School Tuition, Google Map Lahore Johar Town, Vintage John Deere License Plate, Status Of Bandra-versova Sea Link,


  1. เครื่องไสน้ำแข็ง
  2. เครื่องคั้นน้ำผลไม้
  3. เครื่องหั่น
  4. เครื่องทำน้ำเต้าหู้
  5. เครื่องบดพริ้ก
  6. เครื่องผสม
  7. เครื่องบด และ แปรรูป เนื้อสัตว์
  8. เครื่องสับ ผสม
  9. เครื่องสับละเอียด
  10. เครื่องตีเป็นผง
  11. เครื่องแยกน้ำ แยกกาก